One powerful aspect of 3D printing is its ability to extend, repair, or more generally modify everyday objects. However, nearly all existing work implicitly assumes that whole objects are to be printed from scratch. Designing objects as extensions or enhancements of existing ones is a laborious process in most of today's 3D authoring tools.
This paper presents a framework for 3D printing to augment existing objects that covers a wide range of attachment options. We illustrate the framework through three exemplar attachment techniques -- print-over, print-to-affix and print-through, implemented in Encore, a design tool that supports a set of analysis metrics relating to viability, durability and usability that are visualized for the user to explore design options and tradeoffs. Encore also generates 3D models for production, addressing issues such as support jigs and contact geometry between the attached part and the original object. Our validation helps to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of each technique. For example, print-over is stronger than print-to-affix with adhesives, and all the techniques' strengths are affected by surface curvature.
Xiang 'Anthony' Chen, Stelian Coros, Jennifer Mankoff, and Scott E. Hudson. 2015. Encore: 3D Printed Augmentation of Everyday Objects with Printed-Over, Affixed and Interlocked Attachments. In Proceedings of the 28th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software & Technology (UIST '15). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 73-82. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/2807442.2807498